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Ouyang cited a reduction in battery costs to $100 per kilowatt hours from $150-$200 currently and a planned tightening of emissions rules in China which will make gasoline vehicles there more expensive. But others in the EV industry are less optimistic. “Chinese policymakers think EVs will become more like conventional gasoline cars as early as 2025. But that’s naive and all automaker engineers would agree with me,” said a veteran EV engineer at Honda Motor Co. “Sure, there’s an EV boom but hybrids and plug-in hybrids will be needed as bridging technologies,” he said.
The engineer was one of five interviewed by sterling silver and onyx mickey mouse cufflinks Reuters for this article who believe it will take a decade before battery EVs achieve cost and performance parity with gasoline cars, Most were not authorized to speak to media and declined to identified when describing the shortcomings of EV technology, But pressure to deliver parity will only grow as China rolls back subsidies while setting quotas for sales of new energy vehicles (NEVs), China wants NEVs - which also include hybrids, plug-in hybrids and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles - to account for a fifth of auto sales by 2025 compared with 5 percent now..
For most automakers, battery cells cost around $200/kWh, the engineers said, although costs for Tesla Inc are believed to be around $150/kWh, partly due to its much greater scale of production. Tesla declined to comment. To cut costs, firms are working on slashing the use of cobalt, the most expensive part in lithium-ion batteries. Firms such as China’s Contemporary Amperex Technology Co Ltd (CATL), BYD Co Ltd and South Korea’s SK Innovation Co Ltd are developing NMC 811 technology. It uses 80 percent nickel, 10 percent manganese, 10 percent cobalt, while a conventional lithium-ion battery uses 60 percent nickel, 20 percent manganese and 20 percent cobalt. NMC 811 also delivers more energy density, meaning batteries will cost and weigh less.
Others are developing similar technologies with slightly different ratios, Batteries jointly produced by Tesla and Panasonic Corp substitute manganese with aluminum and use less cobalt than NMC 811, Less cobalt and more nickel increases the risk that a battery cell will catch fire - a problem still being worked on, Even so, South Korean battery makers say the next generation of batteries due in three years or so will cost much less and offer much greater driving ranges, But the engineers who spoke with Reuters caution that even if battery sterling silver and onyx mickey mouse cufflinks unit costs are brought down to $100/kWh, this would not necessarily translate into a steep decline in vehicle costs..
That’s because the investment to improve battery quality needs to be factored in, while the cars also need sophisticated battery management systems to prevent overheating and overcharging - adding thousands of dollars to their cost. Toyota Motor Corp, which does not have a pure EV on the market currently, says it is concerned about battery durability. Battery capacity can drop by half over 5-10 years - the reason for low EV resale values, said Shigeki Terashi, executive vice president in charge of Toyota’s EV strategy.
“Falling EV battery capacity is not a major issue in China now because sales there have only recently begun, but in time this problem will likely become more evident,” he told Reuters in a interview, A longer term effort to improve batteries are solid state batteries, where the liquid or gel-form electrolyte in a lithium-ion battery is replaced with a sterling silver and onyx mickey mouse cufflinks solid, That could help double a battery’s energy density, “That’s the holy grail,” says consultant Jon Bereisa, a former GM engineering director who spearheaded much of the automaker’s early lithium-ion battery development..
Many in the industry believe the technology is at least a decade away from mass-market commercial use. “There are a lot of limitations to solid state drive.it will be very difficult to adopt the technology in the automotive applications used by the general public,” said YS Yoon, president of SK Innovation’s battery business. Advances in recharging are also key to making electric vehicles mainstream. A big obstacle is heat, which increases resistance and in turn reduces the current.
Most EVs can sterling silver and onyx mickey mouse cufflinks get a partial charge in under half an hour, although several models due out in the next year can get close to a full charge in 20 minutes, TE Connectivity is working with automakers to cut charging time to as little as 5 minutes and Chief Technology Officer Alan Amici says that goal may be attained in five years, But others are sceptical, Bereisa thinks battery costs could achieve parity with gasoline cars by the late 2020s but his verdict on fast fueling parity is “maybe never”..
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